Rivers are an essential source of fresh water that harboured many human settlements and supported ancient civilizations to thrive on their basins. Globally, the total water consumption toward various human activities has been reported to be 8442 km3/yr (Wu et al., 2022). Over the years, due to over-exploitation of this limited water resource had resulted in pollution of this essential life-supporting resource. Due to rapid industrialization, urbanization, and other unsustainable develop- mental activities the surface water quality has deteriorated in many perennial rivers viz. Ganga, Yellow river, Citarum, Meckong river, Indus, etc. across the world (Kaushal et al., 2019). Hence monitoring of river water quality is of paramount importance. The assessment of sur-face water quality is a prerequisite for implementation of water pro-tection policies and optimal allocation of water resources towards its intended uses (Shah and Joshi,2017).